Basic Speech Geometry

The geometry of a speech is one factor that will determine its impact.


Many people think of a speech as something that is linear: introduction; development of the main points; and conclusion. As in the image below:

Speech Geometry - Linear

And, true enough, when I deliver a speech,  I begin by introducing the subject; I then proceed to develop the main points in support of my objective; and I bring the whole thing to a conclusion. However, although I follow the same broad structure as in the image above, the basic geometry of my speeches is different.

I believe that speech geometry should be circular. Not in the sense that you keep going over the same point again and again. Rather, I mean that the conclusion should somehow bring the audience back to the introduction.

Think about some of the great stories you’ve heard or read about or seen in the theatre: fairy tales such as Jack and the Beanstalk; novels such as The Hobbit; movies such as The Lord of the Rings. They are all circular because they end where they began.

Of course, that does not mean that everything is the same. (If it were, then there wouldn’t be much of a story.) The protagonist is not the same as he was at the outset. After completing his quest or adventure, the protagonist has usually undergone a personal transformation. However, he brings that new wisdom and experience — and, in Jack’s case, a goose that lays golden eggs — back home.

Our speeches should do the same. They should change our audiences in some way, but bring them back to the start with that new knowledge or information.

So how do we go about it?

Well, it all depends on how you begin. My friend and public speaking colleague, Florian Mueck, stresses the importance of our introductions in his book, The Seven Minute Star:

When you speak in public, you have about 30 seconds, more or less, to create that tension between yourself and your listeners, to gain and hold their attention. Your very first sentence is the most crucial rhetorical tool you’ll ever have — it’s like the cat’s paw, because you must use it to grab your audience’s attention. …

An opening sentence must be catchy, a grabber — powerful.

Once you have chosen an effective introduction for your speech, you already have the makings of an equally effective conclusion. Here are some examples I give my clients in my public speaking training courses:

  • You could open with a rhetorical question and conclude by returning to that question. Offer an answer or encourage the audience members to reflect on the question and come up with their own answers. For example, if you open with What would you do if you knew you only had three months to live?, you could conclude by asking the audience the same question and encouraging them to think about what is most important in their lives.
  • You could open with a powerful quotation and conclude with another powerful (and relevant) quotation by the same person. Or you could conclude by offering your reflections on that opening quotation in light of your speech. Or you could give another quotation by someone else and compare it with the first one.
  • You could open with the beginning of a personal story and then transition away from it (before its conclusion) into the main body of your speech. For the conclusion of your speech, you could return to the personal story from where you left off, tell the audience how it turned out and weave its conclusion together with that of your speech.
  • You could open by setting out a challenge that the audience is facing — environmental degradation of the nation’s rivers; declining sales for the company; the proposed construction of a nuclear waste dump near the community. You could then conclude by summarizing the steps that the audience can take to meet and overcome the challenge.

There are many different ways in which to do it and I encourage you to think of others.

Making your speeches circular will add polish to them. By returning to your introduction, you will signal to the audience that you are coming to a conclusion. You will reinforce the main theme of your talk and crystalize your message in your audience’s mind as if you were tying the two ends of your speech together and sealing the message inside.

Thus, I invite you to think about basic speech geometry like this:

Speech Geometry - Circular

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  1. John, your pearls of wisdom are priceless as I prepare and deliver my Teacher Training workshops to middle school teachers. I incorporate TM speaking techniques into my delivery and encourage teachers to do the same when conducting a class. These techniques translate beautifully into the classroom to engage students. Thanks so much for your guidance … you’re helping us CHANGE THE WORLD!
    PS – Spoke to Laura the other day, looking forward to arranging to have you as a guest in our Milan TM club next year. Cheers my friend!

    1. Thank you very much for the comment and kind words, Andy. I have no doubt that you too are doing your fair share to change the world. (After all, why bother to give a speech if not to change the world, even a small part of it?)
      Very much looking forward to visiting your club in Milan and exchanging ideas and experiences.
      Ci vediamo!

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John delivered a keynote address about the importance of public speaking to 80 senior members of Gore’s Medical Device Europe team at an important sales event. He was informative, engaging and inspirational. Everyone was motivated to improve their public speaking skills. Following his keynote, John has led public speaking workshops for Gore in Barcelona and Munich. He is an outstanding speaker who thinks carefully about the needs of his audience well before he steps on stage.

Karsta Goetze

TA Leader, Gore and Associates

I first got in touch with John while preparing to speak at TED Global about my work on ProtonMail. John helped me to sharpen the presentation and get on point faster, making the talk more focused and impactful. My speech was very well received, has since reached almost 1.8 million people and was successful in explaining a complex subject (email encryption) to a general audience.

Andy Yen

CEO, Proton Technologies

John gave the opening keynote on the second day of our unit’s recent offsite in Geneva, addressing an audience of 100+ attendees with a wealth of tips and techniques to deliver powerful, memorable presentations. I applied some of these techniques the very next week in an internal presentation, and I’ve been asked to give that presentation again to senior management, which has NEVER happened before. John is one of the greatest speakers I know and I can recommend his services without reservation.

David Lindelöf

Senior Data Scientist, Expedia Group

After a morning of team building activities using improvisation as the conduit, John came on stage to close the staff event which was organised in Chamonix, France. His energy and presence were immediately felt by all the members of staff. The work put into the preparation of his speech was evident and by sharing some his own stories, he was able to conduct a closing inspirational speech which was relevant, powerful and impactful for all at IRU. The whole team left feeling engaged and motivated to tackle the 2019 objectives ahead. Thank you, John.

Umberto de Pretto

Secretary General, World Road Transport Organization

I was expecting a few speaking tips and tricks and a few fun exercises, but you went above and beyond – and sideways. You taught me to stand tall. You taught me to anchor myself. You taught me to breathe. You taught me to open up. You taught me to look people in the eye. You taught me to tell the truth. You taught me to walk a mile in someone else’s shoes. I got more than I bargained for in the best possible way.

Thuy Khoc-Bilon

World Cancer Day Campaign Manager, Union for International Cancer Control

John gave a brilliant presentation on public speaking during the UN EMERGE programme in Geneva (a two days workshop on leadership development for a group of female staff members working in the UN organizations in Geneva). His talk was inspirational and practical, thanks to the many techniques and tips he shared with the audience. His teaching can dramatically change our public speaking performance and enable us as presenters to have a real and powerful impact. Thank you, John, for your great contribution!

Sara Canna

HR Specialist, World Health Organization

John is a genuine communication innovator. His seminars on gamification of public speaking learning and his interactive Rhetoric game at our conference set the tone for change and improvement in our organisation. The quality of his input, the impact he made with his audience and his effortlessly engaging style made it easy to get on board with his core messages and won over some delegates who were extremely skeptical as to the efficacy of games for learning. I simply cannot recommend him highly enough.

Thomas Scott

National Education Director, Association of Speakers Clubs UK

John joined our Global Sales Meeting in Segovia, Spain and we all participated in his "Improv(e) your Work!" session. I say “all” because it really was all interactive, participatory, learning and enjoyable. The session surprised everybody and was a fresh-air activity that brought a lot of self-reflection and insights to improve trust and confidence in each other inside our team. It´s all about communication and a good manner of speaking!"

Jon Lopez

General Manager Europe, Hayward Industries

Thank you very much for the excellent presentation skills session. The feedback I received was very positive. Everyone enjoyed the good mix of listening to your speech, co-developing a concrete take-away and the personal learning experience. We all feel more devoted to the task ahead, more able to succeed and an elevated team spirit. Delivering this in a short time, both in session and in preparation, is outstanding!

Henning Dehler

CFO European Dairy Supply Chain & Operations, Danone

Thanks to John’s excellent workshop, I have learned many important tips and techniques to become an effective public speaker. John is a fantastic speaker and teacher, with extensive knowledge of the field. His workshop was a great experience and has proven extremely useful for me in my professional and personal life.

Eric Thuillard

Senior Sales Manager, Sunrise Communications

John’s presentation skills training was a terrific investment of my time. I increased my skills in this important area and feel more comfortable when speaking to an audience. John provided the right mix between theory and practice.

Diego Brait

Director of the Jura Region, BKW Energie AG

Be BOLD. Those two words got stuck in my head and in the heads of all those ADP leaders and associates that had the privilege to see John on stage. He was our keynote speaker at our annual convention in Barcelona, and his message still remains! John puts his heart in every word. Few speakers are so credible, humble and yet super strong with large audiences!

Guadalupe Garcia

Senior Director and Talent Partner, ADP International